Integrative Molecular Phenotyping
INTEGRATIVE MOLECULAR
PHENOTYPING
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY

PubMed

PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=metabolomics
Updated: 2 hours 34 min ago

metabolomics; +29 new citations

Tue, 12/01/2021 - 13:26
29 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/12PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Is SGSH heterozygosity a risk factor for early-onset neurodegenerative disease?

Mon, 11/01/2021 - 13:18
Related Articles Is SGSH heterozygosity a risk factor for early-onset neurodegenerative disease? J Inherit Metab Dis. 2021 Jan 09;: Authors: Douglass ML, Beard H, Shoubridge A, Nazri N, King B, Trim PJ, Duplock SK, Snel MF, Hopwood JJ, Hemsley KM Abstract Lysosomal dysfunction may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) have been found in PD patients, and some but not all mutations in other lysosomal enzyme genes for example, NPC1 and MCOLN1 have been associated with PD. We have examined the behaviour and brain structure of mice carrying a D31N mutation in the sulphamidase (Sgsh) gene which encodes a lysosomal sulphatase. Female heterozygotes and wildtype mice aged 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-months of age underwent motor phenotyping and the brain was comprehensively evaluated for disease-associated lesions. Heterozygous mice exhibited impaired performance in the negative geotaxis test when compared with wildtype mice. Whilst the brain of Sgsh heterozygotes aged up to 21-months did not exhibit any of the gross features of PD, Alzheimer's disease or the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders for example, loss of striatal dopamine, reduced GBA activity, α-synuclein-positive inclusions, perturbation of lipid synthesis, or cerebellar Purkinje cell drop-out, we noted discrete structural aberrations in the dendritic tree of cortical pyramidal neurons in 21-month old animals. The overt disease lesions and resultant phenotypic changes previously described in individuals with heterozygous mutations in lysosomal enzyme genes such as glucocerebrosidase may be enzyme dependent. By better understanding why deficiency in, or mutant forms of some but not all lysosomal proteins leads to heightened risk or earlier onset of classical neurodegenerative disorders, novel disease-causing mechanisms may be identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 33423317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Integration of full-length transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes in Corydalis yanhusuo.

Mon, 11/01/2021 - 13:18
Related Articles Integration of full-length transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes in Corydalis yanhusuo. Hortic Res. 2021 Jan 10;8(1):16 Authors: Xu D, Lin H, Tang Y, Huang L, Xu J, Nian S, Zhao Y Abstract Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang is a classic herb that is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine and is efficacious in promoting blood circulation, enhancing energy, and relieving pain. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are the main bioactive ingredients in Corydalis yanhusuo. However, few studies have investigated the BIA biosynthetic pathway in C. yanhusuo, and the biosynthetic pathway of species-specific chemicals such as tetrahydropalmatine remains unclear. We performed full-length transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to identify candidate genes that might be involved in BIA biosynthesis and identified a total of 101 full-length transcripts and 19 metabolites involved in the BIA biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the contents of 19 representative BIAs in C. yanhusuo were quantified by classical targeted metabolomic approaches. Their accumulation in the tuber was consistent with the expression patterns of identified BIA biosynthetic genes in tubers and leaves, which reinforces the validity and reliability of the analyses. Full-length genes with similar expression or enrichment patterns were identified, and a complete BIA biosynthesis pathway in C. yanhusuo was constructed according to these findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a total of ten enzymes that may possess columbamine-O-methyltransferase activity, which is the final step for tetrahydropalmatine synthesis. Our results span the whole BIA biosynthetic pathway in C. yanhusuo. Our full-length transcriptomic data will enable further molecular cloning of enzymes and activity validation studies. PMID: 33423040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5-Hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats via regulation of metabolic profiling and suppression of NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway.

Mon, 11/01/2021 - 13:18
Related Articles 5-Hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats via regulation of metabolic profiling and suppression of NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. Phytomedicine. 2020 Dec 09;82:153438 Authors: Liu F, Yao Y, Lu Z, Zhang Q, Liu C, Zhu C, Lin C Abstract BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one (PQ-A) is the main active compound in Ramulus et Folium Picrasmae, a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used in colitis treatment. PURPOSE: To clarify PQ-A's role and mechanism in colitis treatment based on a non-targeted metabolomics study. METHODS: Rats with ulcerative colitis (UC) established with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were orally treated with PQ-A. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, biochemical parameters (MDA and SOD), and histopathological score in colon tissue were measured. A UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS approach-based metabolomics analysis was conducted to explore the underlying mechanisms of PQ-A in colitis treatment. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10) concentrations in serum and their protein levels in the colon were determined. CD3 and NF-κB/p65 immunohistochemistry in the colon was semi-quantified. The related protein or mRNA in IKK-NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway was measured by Western blotting or RT-PCR, respectively. Potential molecular interactions between PQ-A and NF-κB/p65 was predicted using DS 2.5 software. RESULTS: PQ-A significantly prevented body weight loss and colonic shortening in colitic rats, and reduced the DAI and histopathologic score as well. PQ-A decreased MDA levels in the UC rat serum and increased those of SOD. Metabolomics results revealed forty-nine differential metabolites as biomarkers of DSS-induced colitis, demonstrating that the path-mechanism of colitis involved the perturbation of eight metabolic pathways, including alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, bile acid metabolism, et al. Thirty-six biomarkers were especially reversed to normal-like levels by PQ-A via regulation of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and retinol metabolism, which effectively hinted the potential pharmacological mechanism of PQ-A related to NF-κB/p65 inflammatory signaling. Molecular docking results predicted high affinity interaction between PQ-A and NF-κB/p65, involving hydrogen-bond interactions at five amino acid residues, suggesting NF-κB/p65 as a target. PQ-A decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations in serum and their protein levels in colon tissue in colitic rats. CD3, MYD88, p-IκBα, NF-κB/p65, and p-NF-κB/p65 expression levels decreased, whereas those of IKKβ and IκBα increased in colitic tissue following PQ-A treatment. PQ-A strongly inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. CONCLUSIONS: We provide an overview of PQ-A's possible mechanism of action in colitis treatment based on serum non-targeted metabolomics. PQ-A treatment can protect rats against DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. PMID: 33422953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolites that activate the inflammasome in nascent metabolic syndrome.

Mon, 11/01/2021 - 13:18
Related Articles Metabolites that activate the inflammasome in nascent metabolic syndrome. J Diabetes Complications. 2020 Dec 31;:107836 Authors: Jialal I, Patel A, Devaraj S, Adams-Huet B Abstract BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cardio-metabolic cluster that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Whilst it affects 35% of the American adult population, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Both insulin resistance and increased inflammation appear to be pivotal mechanisms. The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multi-protein complex, is crucial in the activation of Caspase 1, resulting in an increase in both IL-1and IL-18. In this preliminary report we examined the relationship between metabolites from our exploratory metabolomics studies with the NLRP3 inflammasome activity in the adipose tissue of patients with nascent MetS. PATIENT AND METHODS: This study comprised patients with nascent MetS matched with controls. All patients in this study had normal renal and hepatic function. Metabolites were analyzed from frozen early morning urine samples and correlated with adipose tissue Caspase 1, interleukin-1, and interleukin-18 density. RESULTS: Caspase 1, a marker of NLRP3 inflammasome activity, was significantly elevated in patients with nascent MetS compared to controls. Isoleucine, GABA, Carnitine and PC34: 2 were also significantly increased in patients with MetS. Caspase1 correlated positively with Isoleucine, GABA, Carnitine, and PC34:2. CONCLUSION: We make the novel observation that the NLRP3 inflammasome activity is correlated with certain metabolites (Isoleucine, GABA, Carnitine and PC34:2) and hypothesize that they could trigger increased NLRP3 Inflammasome activity in MetS. However, these preliminary ,hypothesis generating novel findings need confirmation in larger studies of the metabolome and inflammasome. PMID: 33422385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolic phenotyping reveals a reduction in the bioavailability of serotonin and kynurenine pathway metabolites in both the urine and serum of individuals living with Alzheimer's disease.

Mon, 11/01/2021 - 13:18
Related Articles Metabolic phenotyping reveals a reduction in the bioavailability of serotonin and kynurenine pathway metabolites in both the urine and serum of individuals living with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2021 Jan 09;13(1):20 Authors: Whiley L, Chappell KE, D'Hondt E, Lewis MR, Jiménez B, Snowden SG, Soininen H, Kłoszewska I, Mecocci P, Tsolaki M, Vellas B, Swann JR, Hye A, Lovestone S, Legido-Quigley C, Holmes E, AddNeuroMed consortium Abstract BACKGROUND: Both serotonergic signalling disruption and systemic inflammation have been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The common denominator linking the two is the catabolism of the essential amino acid, tryptophan. Metabolism via tryptophan hydroxylase results in serotonin synthesis, whilst metabolism via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in kynurenine and its downstream derivatives. IDO is reported to be activated in times of host systemic inflammation and therefore is thought to influence both pathways. To investigate metabolic alterations in AD, a large-scale metabolic phenotyping study was conducted on both urine and serum samples collected from a multi-centre clinical cohort, consisting of individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-matched controls. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping was applied to both urine (n = 560) and serum (n = 354) from the European-wide AddNeuroMed/Dementia Case Register (DCR) biobank repositories. Metabolite data were subsequently interrogated for inter-group differences; influence of gender and age; comparisons between two subgroups of MCI - versus those who remained cognitively stable at follow-up visits (sMCI); and those who underwent further cognitive decline (cMCI); and the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication on metabolite concentrations. RESULTS: Results revealed significantly lower metabolite concentrations of tryptophan pathway metabolites in the AD group: serotonin (urine, serum), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (urine), kynurenine (serum), kynurenic acid (urine), tryptophan (urine, serum), xanthurenic acid (urine, serum), and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (urine). For each listed metabolite, a decreasing trend in concentrations was observed in-line with clinical diagnosis: control > MCI > AD. There were no significant differences in the two MCI subgroups whilst SSRI medication status influenced observations in serum, but not urine. CONCLUSIONS: Urine and serum serotonin concentrations were found to be significantly lower in AD compared with controls, suggesting the bioavailability of the neurotransmitter may be altered in the disease. A significant increase in the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio suggests that this may be a result of a shift to the kynurenine metabolic route due to increased IDO activity, potentially as a result of systemic inflammation. Modulation of the pathways could help improve serotonin bioavailability and signalling in AD patients. PMID: 33422142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

metabolomics; +22 new citations

Sun, 10/01/2021 - 16:13
22 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/10PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +22 new citations

Sun, 10/01/2021 - 13:11
22 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/10PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +24 new citations

Sat, 09/01/2021 - 13:06
24 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/09PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +29 new citations

Fri, 08/01/2021 - 15:57
29 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/08PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +29 new citations

Fri, 08/01/2021 - 12:55
29 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/08PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +26 new citations

Thu, 07/01/2021 - 18:52
26 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/07PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +35 new citations

Wed, 06/01/2021 - 15:46
35 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/06PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +35 new citations

Wed, 06/01/2021 - 12:44
35 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/06PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +36 new citations

Tue, 05/01/2021 - 15:38
36 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/05PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +36 new citations

Tue, 05/01/2021 - 12:34
36 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/05PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Development and validation of an analysis method for pesticide residues by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in Daikenchuto.

Mon, 04/01/2021 - 12:19
Related Articles Development and validation of an analysis method for pesticide residues by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in Daikenchuto. J Nat Med. 2021 Jan 03;: Authors: Saegusa H, Nomura H, Takao M, Hamaguchi T, Yoshida M, Kodama Y Abstract Daikenchuto (DKT) is one of the most widely used "Kampo" in Japan as a representative of herbal medicine. Because DKT is made from a natural product like food, it requires the management of pesticides; therefore, an analysis of residual pesticides in Kampo is required. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that pesticide residue analysis by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) is required. USP defines 107 compounds containing organochlorine pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites, which have a high residual risk. Accordingly, to guarantee the safety of herbal medicines according to global standards is a very important issue. In this study, we developed an analytical method for 91 compounds, which are listed in USP, using DKT as the subject. The method could extract pesticides from DKT with acetone, elute pesticides with acetonitrile using a SepPak C18 column (5 g) and with ethyl acetate using a DSC-NH2 column (2 g), and perform simultaneous analyses by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This method, which could quantify 88 compounds, was validated according to USP. A pesticide residue analysis method that meets USP requirements enables the analysis of pesticide residues with a high residue risk and contributes to improving the safety of "Kampo" and other herbal medicines. PMID: 33389591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Protective Effects of 28-O-Caffeoyl Betulin (B-CA) on the Cerebral Cortex of Ischemic Rats Revealed by a NMR-Based Metabolomics Analysis.

Mon, 04/01/2021 - 12:19
Related Articles Protective Effects of 28-O-Caffeoyl Betulin (B-CA) on the Cerebral Cortex of Ischemic Rats Revealed by a NMR-Based Metabolomics Analysis. Neurochem Res. 2021 Jan 03;: Authors: Liu X, Ruan Z, Shao XC, Feng HX, Wu L, Wang W, Wang HM, Mu HY, Zhang RJ, Zhao WM, Zhang HY, Zhang NX Abstract 28-O-caffeoyl betulin (B-CA) has been demonstrated to reduce the cerebral infarct volume caused by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury. B-CA is a novel derivative of naturally occurring caffeoyl triterpene with little information associated with its pharmacological target(s). To date no data is available regarding the effect of B-CA on brain metabolism. In the present study, a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the therapeutic effects of B-CA on brain metabolism following MCAO in rats. Global metabolic profiles of the cortex in acute period (9 h after focal ischemia onset) after MCAO were compared between the groups (sham; MCAO + vehicle; MCAO + B-CA). MCAO induced several changes in the ipsilateral cortex of ischemic rats, which consequently led to the neuronal damage featured with the downregulation of NAA, including energy metabolism dysfunctions, oxidative stress, and neurotransmitter metabolism. Treatment with B-CA showed statistically significant rescue effects on the ischemic cortex of MCAO rats. Specifically, treatment with B-CA ameliorated the energy metabolism dysfunctions (back-regulating the levels of succinate, lactate, BCAAs, and carnitine), oxidative stress (upregulating the level of glutathione), and neurotransmitter metabolism disturbances (back-regulating the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine) associated with the progression of ischemic stroke. With the administration of B-CA, the levels of three phospholipid related metabolites (O-phosphocholine, O-phosphoethanolamine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and NAA improved significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that treatment with B-CA may provide neuroprotection by augmenting the metabolic changes observed in the cortex following MCAO in rats. PMID: 33389470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A novel method to detect intracellular metabolite alterations in MCF-7 cells by doxorubicin induced cell death.

Mon, 04/01/2021 - 12:19
Related Articles A novel method to detect intracellular metabolite alterations in MCF-7 cells by doxorubicin induced cell death. Metabolomics. 2021 Jan 03;17(1):3 Authors: Kumar A, Patel S, Bhatkar D, Sarode SC, Sharma NK Abstract BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming within cancer cells has been recognized as a potential barrier to chemotherapy. Additionally, metabolic tumor heterogeneity is the one of factors behind discernible hallmarks such as drug resistance, relapse of the tumor and the formation of secondary tumors. METHODS: In this paper, cell-based assays including PI/annexin V staining and immunoblot assay were performed to show the apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells treated with DOX. Further, MCF-7 cells were lysed in a hypotonic buffer and the whole cell lysate was purified by a novel and specifically designed metabolite (~ 100 to 1000 Da) fractionation system called vertical tube gel electrophoresis (VTGE). Further, purified intracellular metabolites were subjected to identification by LC-HRMS technique. RESULTS: Cleaved PARP 1 in MCF-7 cells treated with DOX was observed in the present study. Concomitantly, data showed the absence of active caspase 3 in MCF-7 cells. Novel findings are to identify key intracellular metabolites assisted by VTGE system that include lipid (CDP-DG, phytosphingosine, dodecanamide), non-lipid (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N1-acetylspermidine and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine) and tripeptide metabolites in MCF-7 cells treated by DOX. Interestingly, we reported the first evidence of doxorubicinone, an aglycone form of DOX in MCF-7 cells that are potentially linked to the mechanism of cell death in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: This paper reported novel methods and processes that involve VTGE system based purification of hypotonically lysed novel intracellular metabolites of MCF-7 cells treated by DOX. Here, these identified intracellular metabolites corroborate to caspase 3 independent and mitochondria induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Finally, these findings validate a proof of concept on the applications of novel VTGE assisted purification and analysis of intracellular metabolites from various cell culture models. PMID: 33389242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Osmolality-based normalization enhances statistical discrimination of untargeted metabolomic urine analysis: results from a comparative study.

Mon, 04/01/2021 - 12:19
Related Articles Osmolality-based normalization enhances statistical discrimination of untargeted metabolomic urine analysis: results from a comparative study. Metabolomics. 2021 Jan 02;17(1):2 Authors: Mervant L, Tremblay-Franco M, Jamin EL, Kesse-Guyot E, Galan P, Martin JF, Guéraud F, Debrauwer L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Because of its ease of collection, urine is one of the most commonly used matrices for metabolomics studies. However, unlike other biofluids, urine exhibits tremendous variability that can introduce confounding inconsistency during result interpretation. Despite many existing techniques to normalize urine samples, there is still no consensus on either which method is most appropriate or how to evaluate these methods. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of several methods and combinations of methods conventionally used in urine metabolomics on the statistical discrimination of two groups in a simple metabolomics study. METHODS: We applied 14 different strategies of normalization to forty urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). To evaluate the impact of these different strategies, we relied on the ability of each method to reduce confounding variability while retaining variability of interest, as well as the predictability of statistical models. RESULTS: Among all tested normalization methods, osmolality-based normalization gave the best results. Moreover, we demonstrated that normalization using a specific dilution prior to the analysis outperformed post-acquisition normalization. We also demonstrated that the combination of various normalization methods does not necessarily improve statistical discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: This study re-emphasized the importance of normalizing urine samples for metabolomics studies. In addition, it appeared that the choice of method had a significant impact on result quality. Consequently, we suggest osmolality-based normalization as the best method for normalizing urine samples. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03335644. PMID: 33389209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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