Integrative Molecular Phenotyping
INTEGRATIVE MOLECULAR
PHENOTYPING
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY

PubMed

PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=metabolomics
Updated: 53 min 36 sec ago

Profiling novel metabolic biomarkers for Parkinson's disease using in-depth metabolomic analysis.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Profiling novel metabolic biomarkers for Parkinson's disease using in-depth metabolomic analysis. Mov Disord. 2017 Sep 07;: Authors: Han W, Sapkota S, Camicioli R, Dixon RA, Li L Abstract OBJECTIVE: To profile the amine/phenol submetabolome to determine potential metabolite biomarkers associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD with incipient dementia. METHODS: At baseline of a 3-wave (18-month intervals) longitudinal study, serum samples were collected from 42 healthy controls and 43 PD patients. By wave 3 (year 3), 16 PD patients were diagnosed with dementia and were classified as PD with incipient dementia at baseline. Metabolomic profiling using dansylation isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was conducted to compare controls with the full PD, PD with no dementia, and PD with incipient dementia groups. RESULTS: Metabolomic analyses detected 719 common metabolites in 80% of the samples. Some were significantly altered in pairwise comparison of different groups (fold change of >1.2 or <0.83 with q < 0.05). We discriminated PD and controls by using a 5-metabolite panel, vanillic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, isoleucyl-alanine, 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, and theophylline. The receiver operating characteristic curve produced an area-under-the-curve value of 0.955 with 87.5% sensitivity and 93.0% specificity. In comparing PD with no dementia with PD with incipient dementia, we used an 8-metabolite panel, His-Asn-Asp-Ser, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetone, desaminotyrosine, hydroxy-isoleucine, alanyl-alanine, putrescine [-2H], purine [+O] and its riboside. This produced an area-under-the-curve value of 0.862 with 80.0% sensitivity and 77.0% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly altered metabolites can be used to differentiate (1) PD patients from healthy controls with high accuracy and (2) the stable PD with no dementia group from those with incipient dementia. Following further validation in larger cohorts, these metabolites could be used for both discrimination and establishing prognosis in PD. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID: 28880465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

New Protocol Based on UHPLC-MS/MS for Quantitation of Metabolites in Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles New Protocol Based on UHPLC-MS/MS for Quantitation of Metabolites in Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2017 Sep 06;: Authors: Campos CG, Veras HCT, de Aquino Ribeiro JA, Costa PPKG, Araújo KP, Rodrigues CM, de Almeida JRM, Abdelnur PV Abstract Xylose fermentation is a bottleneck in second-generation ethanol production. As such, a comprehensive understanding of xylose metabolism in naturally xylose-fermenting yeasts is essential for prospection and construction of recombinant yeast strains. The objective of the current study was to establish a reliable metabolomics protocol for quantification of key metabolites of xylose catabolism pathways in yeast, and to apply this protocol to Spathaspora arborariae. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to quantify metabolites, and afterwards, sample preparation was optimized to examine yeast intracellular metabolites. S. arborariae was cultivated using xylose as a carbon source under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. Ion pair chromatography (IPC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) were shown to efficiently quantify 14 and 5 metabolites, respectively, in a more rapid chromatographic protocol than previously described. Thirteen and eleven metabolites were quantified in S. arborariae under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions, respectively. This targeted metabolomics protocol is shown here to quantify a total of 19 metabolites, including sugars, phosphates, coenzymes, monosaccharides, and alcohols, from xylose catabolism pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) in yeast. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first time that intracellular metabolites have been quantified in S. arborariae after xylose consumption. The results indicated that fine control of oxygen levels during fermentation is necessary to optimize ethanol production by S. arborariae. The protocol presented here may be applied to other yeast species and could support yeast genetic engineering to improve second generation ethanol production. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID: 28879550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Spontaneous miscarriage in first trimester pregnancy is associated with altered urinary metabolite profile.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Spontaneous miscarriage in first trimester pregnancy is associated with altered urinary metabolite profile. BBA Clin. 2017 Dec;8:48-55 Authors: Ku CW, Tan ZW, Lim MK, Tam ZY, Lin CH, Ng SP, Allen JC, Lek SM, Tan TC, Tan NS Abstract Threatened miscarriage is the most common gynecological emergency, occurring in about 20% of pregnant women. Approximately one in four of these patients go on to have spontaneous miscarriage and the etiology of miscarriage still remains elusive. In a bid to identify possible biomarkers and novel treatment targets, many studies have been undertaken to elucidate the pathways that lead to a miscarriage. Luteal phase deficiency has been shown to contribute to miscarriages, and the measurement of serum progesterone as a prognostic marker and the prescription of progesterone supplementation has been proposed as possible diagnostic and treatment methods. However, luteal phase deficiency only accounts for 35% of miscarriages. In order to understand the other causes of spontaneous miscarriage and possible novel urine biomarkers for miscarriage, we looked at the changes in urinary metabolites in women with threatened miscarriage. To this end, we performed a case-control study of eighty patients who presented with threatened miscarriage between 6 and 10 weeks gestation. Urine metabolomics analyses of forty patients with spontaneous miscarriages and forty patients with ongoing pregnancies at 16 weeks gestation point to an impaired placental mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids as the possible cause of spontaneous miscarriage. This study also highlighted the potential of urine metabolites as a non-invasive screening tool for the risk stratification of women presenting with threatened miscarriage. PMID: 28879096 [PubMed]

Serum metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease development or reversion; a targeted metabolomic approach within the PREDIMED trial.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Serum metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease development or reversion; a targeted metabolomic approach within the PREDIMED trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017;14:58 Authors: Papandreou C, Bullò M, Tinahones FJ, Martínez-González MÁ, Corella D, Fragkiadakis GA, López-Miranda J, Estruch R, Fitó M, Salas-Salvadó J Abstract BACKGROUND: Limited prospective studies have examined changes in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) related serum-metabolites and none the effects of NAFLD-reversion. We aimed to evaluate whether perturbations in metabolites indicate predisposition to NAFLD development and to assess the effects of NAFLD reversion on metabolite profiles. METHODS: A targeted liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry metabolic profiling (n = 453 metabolites) approach was applied, using serum from 45 subjects of the PREDIMED study, at baseline and after a median 3.8-year follow-up. NAFLD was determined using the hepatic steatosis index; with three groups classified and studied: Group 1, not characterized as NAFLD cases during the follow-up (n = 15); Group 2, characterized as NAFLD during the follow-up (n = 15); Group 3, characterized as NAFLD-reversion during the follow-up (n = 15). RESULTS: At baseline, significantly lower storage and transport lipids (triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters), several monoetherglycerophosphocholines, acylglycerophosphocholines, ceramides and ceramide to sphingomyelin ratio (P < 0.05), were found; whereas a higher L-cystine to L-glutamate ratio (P < 0.05) was observed, in group 2 as compared to group 1.P-ether acylglycerophosphocholines, ceramides and sphingolipids were significantly different betweengroup 3 and group 1 (P < 0.05). Higher 16:1n-7 to 16:0, and 18:0 to16:0 ratio (P < 0.05), while lower 18:1n-9 to 18:0, 16:0 to 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-6 to 18:2n-6 ratio (P < 0.05) were observed in the final, compared to baseline values, in groups 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: The rearrangement of lipid biosynthesis and serum transport may indicate predisposition to NAFLD development. Despite an expected reduction of hepatic lipotoxicity and improved hepatic function in the participants of the study characterized as NAFLD-reversing, the side effects of NAFLD in serum metabolic profiles remained present. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ISRCTN35739639. Registration date: 5th October 2005. PMID: 28878811 [PubMed]

Thiamine antagonists trigger p53-dependent apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Thiamine antagonists trigger p53-dependent apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 06;7(1):10632 Authors: Chornyy S, Parkhomenko Y, Chorna N Abstract Accumulating evidences suggest that p53 is a key coordinator of cellular events triggered by oxidative stress often associated with the impairment in thiamine metabolism and its functions. However, there are limited data regarding the pursuant feedback between p53 transactivation and thiamine homeostasis. Impairment in thiamine metabolism can be induced experimentally via interference with the thiamine uptake and/or inhibition of the thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes using thiamine antagonists - amprolium (AM), oxythiamine (OT) or pyrithiamine (PT). We found that exposure of neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to AM, OT and PT triggered upregulation of p53 gene expression, post-translational modification of p53 via phosphorylation and activation of p53 DNA-binding activity. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser20 was equally efficient in upregulation of thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1) by all antagonists. However, induction of the expressions of the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PDHB) and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) required dual phosphorylation of p53 at Ser9 and Ser20, seen in cells treated with PT and OT. Moreover, pretreatment of the cells with a decoy oligonucleotide carrying wild-type p53-response element markedly attenuated OT-induced THTR1, PDHB and OGDH gene expression suggesting an important role of p53 in transactivation of these genes. Finally, analysis of gene and metabolic networks showed that OT triggers cell apoptosis through the p53-dependent intrinsic pathway. PMID: 28878400 [PubMed - in process]

Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae).

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae). Molecules. 2017 Sep 06;22(9): Authors: Juvik OJ, Holmelid B, Francis GW, Lie Andersen H, de Oliveira AP, Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior R, Guedes da Silva Almeida JR, Fossen T Abstract Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa , Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa , N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata , E. spectabile , and B. laciniosa . Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) plant metabolomics. PMID: 28878176 [PubMed - in process]

Metabolomics Analysis of Urine Samples from Children after Acetaminophen Overdose.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Metabolomics Analysis of Urine Samples from Children after Acetaminophen Overdose. Metabolites. 2017 Sep 06;7(3): Authors: Schnackenberg LK, Sun J, Bhattacharyya S, Gill P, James LP, Beger RD Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, accounts for approximately fifty percent of the cases of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States due to overdose, with over half of those unintentional. Current clinical approaches for assessing APAP overdose rely on identifying the precise time of overdose and quantitating acetaminophen alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in peripheral blood. Novel specific and sensitive biomarkers may provide additional information regarding patient status post overdose. Previous non-clinical metabolomics studies identified potential urinary biomarkers of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolites involved pathways of tricarboxylic acid cycle, ketone metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. In this study, biomarkers identified in the previous non-clinical study were evaluated in urine samples collected from healthy subjects ( N = 6, median age 14.08 years) and overdose patients ( N = 13, median age 13.91 years) as part of an IRB-approved multicenter study of APAP toxicity in children. The clinical results identified metabolites from pathways previously noted, and pathway analysis indicated analogous pathways were significantly altered in both the rats and humans after APAP overdose. The results suggest a metabolomics approach may enable the discovery of specific, translational biomarkers of drug-induced hepatotoxicity that may aid in the assessment of patients. PMID: 28878168 [PubMed]

NAD metabolism fuels human and mouse intestinal inflammation.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles NAD metabolism fuels human and mouse intestinal inflammation. Gut. 2017 Sep 06;: Authors: Gerner RR, Klepsch V, Macheiner S, Arnhard K, Adolph TE, Grander C, Wieser V, Pfister A, Moser P, Hermann-Kleiter N, Baier G, Oberacher H, Tilg H, Moschen AR Abstract OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, also referred to as pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin) is critically required for the maintenance of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supply catalysing the rate-limiting step of the NAD salvage pathway. NAMPT is strongly upregulated in inflammation including IBD and counteracts an increased cellular NAD turnover mediated by NAD-depleting enzymes. These constitute an important mechanistic link between inflammatory, metabolic and transcriptional pathways and NAD metabolism. DESIGN: We investigated the impact of NAMPT inhibition by the small-molecule inhibitor FK866 in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis and the azoxymethane/DSS model of colitis-associated cancer. The impact of NAD depletion on differentiation of mouse and human primary monocytes/macrophages was studied in vitro. Finally, we tested the efficacy of FK866 compared with dexamethasone and infliximab in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) isolated from patients with IBD. RESULTS: FK866 ameliorated DSS-induced colitis and suppressed inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in mice. FK866 potently inhibited NAMPT activity as demonstrated by reduced mucosal NAD, resulting in reduced abundances and activities of NAD-dependent enzymes including PARP1, Sirt6 and CD38, reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, and decreased cellular infiltration by inflammatory monocytes, macrophages and activated T cells. Remarkably, FK866 effectively supressed cytokine release from LPMNCs of patients with IBD. As FK866 was also effective in Rag1(-⁄-) mice, we mechanistically linked FK866 treatment with altered monocyte/macrophage biology and skewed macrophage polarisation by reducing CD86, CD38, MHC-II and interleukin (IL)-6 and promoting CD206, Egr2 and IL-10. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasise the importance of NAD immunometabolism for mucosal immunity and highlight FK866-mediated NAMPT blockade as a promising therapeutic approach in acute intestinal inflammation. PMID: 28877980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 06;: Authors: Bazanella M, Maier TV, Clavel T, Lagkouvardos I, Lucio M, Maldonado-Gòmez MX, Autran C, Walter J, Bode L, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Haller D Abstract Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B. longum subspecies infantis (intervention), or to a control formula without bifidobacteria (placebo). Breastfed controls were included. Diversity and composition of fecal microbiota were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing, and metabolite profiles were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over a period of 2 y.Results: Infants (n = 106) were randomly assigned to either the interventional (n = 48) or placebo (n = 49) group; 9 infants were exclusively breastfed throughout the entire intervention period of 12 mo. Infants exposed to bifidobacteria-supplemented formula showed decreased occurrence of Bacteroides and Blautia spp. associated with changes in lipids and unknown metabolites at month 1. Microbiota and metabolite profiles of intervention and placebo groups converged during the study period, and long-term colonization (24 mo) of the supplemented Bifidobacterium strains was not detected. Significant differences in microbiota and metabolites were detected between infants fed breast milk and those fed formula (P < 0.005) and between infants birthed vaginally and those birthed by cesarean delivery (P < 0.005). No significant differences were observed between infant feeding groups regarding growth, antibiotic uptake, or other health variables (P > 0.05).Conclusion: The supplementation of bifidobacteria to infant diet can modulate the occurrence of specific bacteria and metabolites during early life with no detectable long-term effects. This trial was registered at germanctr.de as DRKS00003660. PMID: 28877893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolomics reveals the mechanism of (-)-hydroxycitric acid promotion of protein synthesis and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in broiler chickens.

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Metabolomics reveals the mechanism of (-)-hydroxycitric acid promotion of protein synthesis and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in broiler chickens. Animal. 2017 Sep 07;:1-10 Authors: Peng ML, Han J, Li LL, Ma HT Abstract (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major component of Garcinia cambogia extracts, has been shown to suppress BW gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse serum metabolites, and principal component analysis and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis models were generated to analyse serum metabolite changes in broiler chickens after the administration of (-)-HCA at 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg diets for 28 days. Metabolites showing significant changes were screened by 'variable importance in the projection' plots. The results showed that 20 metabolites in the 1000 mg/kg (-)-HCA treatment group and 16 metabolites in 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA treatment group were significantly altered. Metabolites pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these metabolites were mainly associated with metabolism of amino acids, protein synthesis, citric acid cycle, and uric acid and fatty acid synthesis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA promoted protein synthesis by regulating the metabolic directions of amino acids. At the same time, (-)-HCA treatment inhibited fatty acid synthesis by promoting the citric acid cycle, resulting in reduced cytosolic acetyl-CoA content in broiler chickens. The present study identified global changes in metabolites and analysed the main canonical metabolic pathways in broiler chickens supplemented with (-)-HCA. These results will deepen our understanding of the mechanism of (-)-HCA's effects in animals. PMID: 28877777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Measurement of tissue azithromycin levels in self-collected vaginal swabs post treatment using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Fri, 08/09/2017 - 14:55
Related Articles Measurement of tissue azithromycin levels in self-collected vaginal swabs post treatment using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177615 Authors: Vodstrcil LA, Rupasinghe TWT, Kong FYS, Tull D, Worthington K, Chen MY, Huston WM, Timms P, McConville MJ, Fairley CK, Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN, Hocking JS Abstract BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital chlamydia infection although the standard 1gram dose sometimes fails to eradicate the infection (treatment failure). One hypothesis proposed for treatment failure has been insufficient levels of the antibiotic at the site of infection. We developed an assay using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure azithromycin concentration in high-vaginal swabs and monitor how concentration changes over time following routine azithromycin treatment. METHODS: Azithromycin concentrations were measured in two groups of women either within the first 24h of taking a 1g dose (N = 11) or over 9 days (N = 10). Azithromycin concentrations were normalised to an internal standard (leucine enkephalin), and the bulk lipid species phosphatidylcholine [PC(34:1)], using an Agilent 6490 triple quadrupole instrument in positive ionisation mode. The abundances of azithromycin, PC(34:1), and leu-enkephalin were determined by multiple reaction monitoring and absolute levels of azithromycin estimated using standard curves prepared on vaginal specimens. RESULTS: Vaginal azithromycin concentrations of women were rapidly obtained after 5h post-treatment (mean concentration = 1031mcg/mg of lipid, range = 173-2693mcg/mg). In women followed for 9 days, peak concentrations were highest after day 2 (mean concentration = 2206mcg/mg, range = 721-5791mcg/mg), and remained high for at least 9 days with a mean concentration of 384mcg/mg (range = 139-1024mcg/mg) on day 9. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that a single 1g dose of azithromycin is rapidly absorbed and remains in the vagina at relatively high levels for at least a week, suggesting that poor antibiotic absorption is unlikely to be an explanation for treatment failure. PMID: 28498845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

metabolomics; +30 new citations

Thu, 07/09/2017 - 14:48
30 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2017/09/07PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Sep 05;18(9): Authors: Zhong Q, Li X, Nong Q, Mao B, Pan X Abstract This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure. PMID: 28872622 [PubMed - in process]

Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus. J Vis Exp. 2017 Aug 19;(126): Authors: Chung HN, Rodriguez SD, Carpenter VK, Vulcan J, Bailey CD, Nageswara-Rao M, Li Y, Attardo GM, Hansen IA Abstract The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production. The fat body culture process begins with the preparation of solutions and reagents, including amino acid stock solutions, Aedes physiological saline salt stock solution (APS), calcium stock solution, and fat body culture medium. The process continues with fat body dissection, followed by an experimental treatment. After treatment, a variety of different analyses can be performed, including RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), qPCR, Western blots, proteomics, and metabolomics. In our example experiment, we demonstrate the protocol through the excision and culture of fat bodies from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. RNA from fat bodies cultured under a physiological condition known to upregulate yolk proteins versus the control were subject to RNA-Seq analysis to demonstrate the potential utility of this procedure for investigations of gene expression. PMID: 28872112 [PubMed - in process]

NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics of Drosophila model of Huntington's disease suggests altered cell energetics.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics of Drosophila model of Huntington's disease suggests altered cell energetics. J Proteome Res. 2017 Sep 05;: Authors: Singh V, Sharma RK, Athilingam T, Sinha P, Sinha N, Thakur AK Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder induced by aggregation of the pathological form of Huntingtin protein that has expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats. In the Drosophila model, for instance, expression of transgenes with polyQ repeats induce HD-like pathologies progressively correlating with the increasing lengths of these repeats. Previous studies on both animal models and clinical samples have revealed metabolite imbalances during HD progression. To further explore the physiological processes linked to metabolite imbalances during HD, we have investigated 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics profile of Drosophila HD model. Using multivariate analysis (PCA and PLS-DA) of metabolites obtained from methanolic extracts of fly heads displaying retinal deformations due to polyQ overexpression, we show that the metabolite imbalance during HD are likely to affect cell energetics. Six out of the 35 metabolites analyzed, namely, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), lactate, pyruvate, succinate, sarcosine, and acetoin displayed segregation with progressive severity of HD. Specifically, HD progression was seen associated with reduction in NAD and increase in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. Further, comparative analysis of fly HD metabolome with those of mouse HD model, and HD human patients, revealed comparable metabolite imbalances suggesting altered cellular energy homeostasis. These findings thus raise the possibility of therapeutic interventions for HD via modulation of cellular energetics. PMID: 28871787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Somatic Embryogenesis in Coffee: The Evolution of Biotechnology and the Integration of Omics Technologies Offer Great Opportunities.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles Somatic Embryogenesis in Coffee: The Evolution of Biotechnology and the Integration of Omics Technologies Offer Great Opportunities. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1460 Authors: Campos NA, Panis B, Carpentier SC Abstract One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention. The methodologies to induce SE and the further development of the embryos are genotype-dependent, what leads to an almost empirical development of specific protocols for each cultivar or clone. This is a serious limitation and excludes a general comprehensive understanding of the process as a whole. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of which achievements and molecular insights have been gained in (coffee) somatic embryogenesis and encourage researchers to invest further in the in vitro technology and combine it with the latest omics techniques (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics). We conclude that the evolution of biotechnology and the integration of omics technologies offer great opportunities to (i) optimize the production process of SE and the subsequent conversion into rooted plantlets and (ii) to screen for possible somaclonal variation. However, currently the usage of the latest biotechnology did not pass the stage beyond proof of potential and needs to further improve. PMID: 28871271 [PubMed]

An LC-MS Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Ammonia Isotopologues.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles An LC-MS Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Ammonia Isotopologues. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 04;7(1):10304 Authors: Spinelli JB, Kelley LP, Haigis MC Abstract Ammonia is a fundamental aspect of metabolism spanning all of phylogeny. Metabolomics, including metabolic tracing studies, are an integral part of elucidating the role of ammonia in these systems. However, current methods for measurement of ammonia are spectrophotometric, and cannot distinguish isotopologues of ammonia, significantly limiting metabolic tracing studies. Here, we describe a novel LC-MS-based method that quantitatively assesses both (14)N-and (15)N-isotopologues of ammonia in polar metabolite extracts. This assay (1) quantitatively measures the concentration of ammonia in polar metabolite isolates used for metabolomic studies, and (2) accurately determines the percent isotope abundance of (15)N-ammonia in a cell lysate for (15)N-isotope tracing studies. We apply this assay to quantitatively measure glutamine-derived ammonia in lung cancer cell lines with differential expression of glutaminase. PMID: 28871132 [PubMed - in process]

Angiotensin II affects inflammation mechanisms via AMPK-related signalling pathways in HL-1 atrial myocytes.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles Angiotensin II affects inflammation mechanisms via AMPK-related signalling pathways in HL-1 atrial myocytes. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 04;7(1):10328 Authors: Kim N, Jung Y, Nam M, Sun Kang M, Lee MK, Cho Y, Choi EK, Hwang GS, Soo Kim H Abstract Inflammation is a common cause of cardiac arrhythmia. Angiotensin ІІ (Ang ІІ) is a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of cardiac inflammation; however, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we explored the effect of Ang ІІ on inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative stress using HL-1 atrial myocytes. We showed that Ang ІІ activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and other inflammatory markers, such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Ang ІІ decreased oxygen consumption rate, which resulted in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibition of ROS blocked Ang II-mediated JNK phosphorylation and TGF-β1 induction. Ang ІІ induced the expression of its specific receptor, AT1R. Ang II-induced intracellular calcium production associated with Ang ІІ-mediated signalling pathways. In addition, the generated ROS and calcium stimulated AMPK phosphorylation. Inhibiting AMPK blocked Ang II-mediated JNK and TGF-β signalling pathways. Ang ІІ concentration, along with TGF-β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, was slightly increased in plasma of patients with atrial fibrillation. Taken together, these results suggest that Ang ІІ induces inflammation mechanisms through an AMPK-related signalling pathway. Our results provide new molecular targets for the development of therapeutics for inflammation-related conditions, such as atrial fibrillation. PMID: 28871102 [PubMed - in process]

GC-MS based metabolomics of colon cancer cells using different extraction solvents.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles GC-MS based metabolomics of colon cancer cells using different extraction solvents. Anal Chim Acta. 2017 Sep 15;986:48-56 Authors: Ibáñez C, Simó C, Palazoglu M, Cifuentes A Abstract The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer enforces the development of novel methodologies and protocols to deepen in the molecular mechanisms that govern disease pathophysiological events. The aim of this work is to deepen in the optimum metabolite extraction protocol from adherent mammalian cells of colon cancer for high throughput metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS results showed that metabolic information obtained from colon cancer cells was highly dependent on metabolite extraction selection, which at the same time is extremely influenced by the analytical platform. A further purpose of this investigation is to uncover an unexplored portion of HT-29 colon cancer cells metabolome, complementary to other already explored by CE-MS and LC-MS methods. At this respect, a total of 150 metabolites were identified in HT-29 colon cancer cells by GC-MS. The extraction protocol with acetonitrile-isopropanol-water was the most appropriate for fatty acids and related pathways analysis. Most of the metabolites involved in pathways of amino acids, glutathione, amino sugars and other polar metabolites were better extracted with acidified water, although water extraction showed the best overall reproducibility. Although pathways involving nitrogenous bases could be investigated using organic or aqueous extracts, a higher number of metabolites involved in these pathways were identified in the aqueous extracts. In addition, metabolite extraction protocol was observed to be crucial for the determination of potentially interesting clusters of metabolites. PMID: 28870325 [PubMed - in process]

Innovative biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a major clinical challenge in psychiatry.

Wed, 06/09/2017 - 14:34
Related Articles Innovative biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a major clinical challenge in psychiatry. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2017 Sep 05;: Authors: Lozupone M, Seripa D, Stella E, La Montagna M, Solfrizzi V, Quaranta N, Veneziani F, Cester A, Sardone R, Bonfiglio C, Giannelli G, Bisceglia P, Bringiotti R, Daniele A, Greco A, Bellomo A, Logroscino G, Panza F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses is based upon DSM-5 criteria. Although endophenotype-specificity for a particular disorder is discussed, the identification of objective biomarkers is ongoing for aiding diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. We need to improve the understanding of the biological abnormalities in psychiatric illnesses across conventional diagnostic boundaries. The present review investigates the innovative post-genomic knowledge used for psychiatric illness diagnostics and treatment response, with a particular focus on proteomics. Areas covered: This review underlines the contribution that psychiatric innovative biomarkers have reached in relation to diagnosis and theragnosis of psychiatric illnesses. Furthermore, it encompasses a reliable representation of their involvement in disease through proteomics, metabolomics/pharmacometabolomics and lipidomics techniques, including the possible role that gut microbiota and CYP2D6 polimorphisms may play in psychiatric illnesses. Expert opinion: Etiologic heterogeneity, variable expressivity, and epigenetics may impact clinical manifestations, making it difficult for a single measurement to be pathognomonic for multifaceted psychiatric disorders. Academic, industry, or government's partnerships may successfully identify and validate new biomarkers so that unfailing clinical tests can be developed. Proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics techniques are considered to be helpful tools beyond neuroimaging and neuropsychology for the phenotypic characterization of brain diseases. PMID: 28870126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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